Annotated bibliography


The Scope of The Subject


Methodology

A key decision in the development of this project’s research design is which kind of research approach to take; a quantitative positive approach or a qualitative interpretivist strategy. The postiviest understands the world to be objective and circumstances affect all individuals in the same way, where as the interpretivist sees individual subjectivity as creating different responses in different people. My research background is from the humanities; specifically theatre and performance studies that is concerned with the way in which storys shape the individual and collective. There for this project takes up a qualitative and interpretivist approach that interested in the ‘subjective texture of experience’ that can be interpreted through a specific context. The texts here represent those texts that have helped me formulate this research design.

The Historical Record

In this field, the impact of creativity is seen from the wide sweeping perspective of history where the development of the scientific method emerges from the philosophical, religious, cultural and literary traditions of the humanities. The text here provides a context to the contemporary studies on artistic value that can be placed within the larger landscape of classical and modern thought on the subject. However, it is not necessary form me to investigate this area any further, the historical statements of cultural value are useful in setting up the research project which is specific to one case study and those people participating in it.


Participatory Arts: CAse Study

This section reviews literature directly pertaining to my case study of Outlandish Theatre. The group can be placed within a community arts context. These texts are sourced from non - academic media sources on the internet. There for they vary in intellectual rigor but read as a collection of documents they form an essential part of the literature review and help to formulate the interview questions.

Participatory Arts

The field of participatory arts is concerned with the democratisation of culture where everyone has the opportunity to realise their creative potential. Community arts is viewed as a social practice where creativity in the everyday and collective creative action are key elements to democracy and civic responsibility. The texts here explore the social impacts of participatory arts on communities and represent some of the most useful literature for my project.


Civic role of the cultural institute

The civic role of the cultural institute is a field of research and practice that identifies the values, strategies, and processes in which cultural organizations can establish meaningful long term relationships with local communities. Accessibility, participation and inclusivity form core values in this field of practice that are realised through participatory arts projects between institutes and community. These texts outline a number of case studies that initiate projects in co - creation with the people living it the locality

Cultural Policy Research

Cultural policy is the rhetoric that is used at a governmental level to communicate the value of arts and culture to society and the strategies employed by the Arts Council and other high level creative institutes to implement these values. The texts here are research projects that assess the value of creativity in everyday life which informs cultural policy values


Creativity & Education

I was introduced to this area of research by taking part in a series of consultation workshops with Creativity Culture and Education (UK) and Helium Arts (Ireland). Creativity Culture and Education is a UK based consultancy firm that promotes creative learning within the classroom, while Helium Arts is a cultural institute that works with children and young people within a community and hospital context. These workshops were making the link between health and creativity. While the area of Creativity and Education is outside my field of study, the text here is a useful one in giving an overview of the value of art and there are elements within this text that align with the values of my case study Outlandish Theatre.

ARTS & HEALTH

The field of arts and health plays an essential role in evidencing the value of creativity and culture first within a medical context and by implication to wider society. Advocacy of the arts by the medical institute is important from a funding perspective because it represents the validity of artistic practice at a scientific level. The scientific method is seen to validate the arts empirically. Artists can gain greater advocacy for their work from a non cultural going audience if creativity is evidenced as an integral part of wellbeing and public health. The texts thin this field identify the essential role of creativity in the promotion of wellbeing and present a variety of scientific methodologies; qualitative and quantitative that can measure artistic impact on patients. It is important to acknowledge this area , but, it is not necessary for me to explore this subject matter in great depth as my case study is participatory arts context.


The Literature


Methodology

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Gregorio. S (2019)  Transcription Webinar: Going Beyond Words, NVivo International  

TAGS: Qualitative thematic analysis: transcription 

CENTRAL THEME: Qualitative and Quantitative views of transcribing interviews differ in significant ways.

AUDIENCE: Researchers 
Method / Research Design: Action research 

Key Findings; 

  • A positivist approach sees transcription as a straightforward, mechanical and one to one process 

  • The interpretivist method views the interview as couched within a context that affects interpretation . For the interpretivist the overall environment, circumstances and embodiment of the interview affects the way in which it is perceived. 

  • The time and place of the interview is conducted, as well as the body language and facial gestures of the interviewee and interviewer all contribute to the possible meanings and interpretations of the data. 

  • There are several ways to transcribe interviews into to the written word, yet, different techniques omit different layers of information.

  •  Film interviews for example include the place, the embodiment of the interviewees (facial gestures & body language), the tone of the conversation (laguater, silences, pauses etc) and the words themselves. 

  • Audio recordings will omit the visual cues but retain the tonal qualities of the conversation. If a researcher where to dictate the interview using speech to text software, for example, the original tonal quality of the conversation would be lost.     

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY; Information for this Webinar is important to my research because it further reinforces the difference between a positivist and interpretivist view of transcription which is related to the choice of research design. There for the choice fo a qualitative ethnographic interview methodology is complemented by using an interpretivist strategy towards thematic analysis      

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Braun V and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.

TAGS: Qualitative thematic analysis 

CENTRAL THEME: Thematic analysis is the basic and most universal method of qualitative research. It is a robust and flexible  way in-which to explore themes within a variety of data sources. The researchers suggest a six phase strategy towards this analysing information within this methodology    

AUDIENCE: Researchers 

Method / Research Design: Literature Review 

Key Findings; 

  • The researchers comment how qualitative research designs can be categorised into two general approaches. The first are those methodologies guided by a particular theoretical or epistemological position, while the second don’t formulate an a priori theory in the application of a methodology (4 & 5)

  •  Thematic analysis is naturally situated within this second approach but adaptable to any methodology across all qualitative research designs (5).

  • thematic analysis as a ‘method for  identifying, analysing, and reporting patterns (themes) within data’ (6)

  • By revealing emergent themes through analysis of transcripts, researchers gain a valuable insight into the ‘subjective texture of experience’.

  •  Phase 1: familiarising yourself with your data (16), Phase 2: generating initial codes (18), Phase 3: searching for themes (19), Phase 4: reviewing themes (20), Phase 5: defining and naming themes (22) and Phase 6: producing the report (23).

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is an essential text for my research because it provides a key insight into how to conduct thematic analysis on interview text in a systematic way.


AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Spradley. P. J (1979),  The Ethnographic Interview, Manchester College, New York

TAGS: Researcher 

CENTRAL THEME: The ethnographic interview is an effective qualitative research strategy that can give the researcher a key insight into their subject matter. The interview becomes a form anthropological inquiry when employed in the right  way. Through this methodology the researcher can revel the specific cultural context in which a person is from and the specific way in which that person expresses their cultural identity. ‘Culture’ is used in the broad sense of the word to describe any domain of everyday activity with governed by clearly defined conventions  eg: Pub culture, Sports culture or Irish Culture.  

AUDIENCE: Researchers 
Method / Research Design: Action Research 

Key Findings;

Elements of a ethnographic interview

explicit purpose, ethnographic explanations  and ethnographic questions (59)

  • 1: Explicit Purpose is where the interview has a clear intention and strategy that the researcher makes obvious and reiterates for the participant.

  • 2: Ethnographic explanations involve the researcher making explicit his intention and strategy while leaning something about the interviewee’s culture. Intern the informant becomes a kind of teacher as they ‘induct’ the interview into their specific culture . Ethnographic explanations facilitate this process in five  ways:

    • A: Project Explanations: making it clear what the project is about in a vocabulary that the interviewee understands.

    • B: Recording Explanations: the use of alternative recording techniques such as making a note and the clear communication that this type of notation is being used.

    • C: Native Language Explanations: allowing informants to describe their experience in their own terms in-order to understand the specific culture in which they come from

    • D: Interview Explanations: as trust is built between interviewer and interviewee the line of enquiry can become more experimental

    • E: Question Explanations: allows the interviewer to change the line of inquiry by making it clear that the strategy is changing

  • 3: Ethnographic Questions there are three main types that a researcher can ask in-order to deepen their knowledge.

    • A: Descriptive Questions: are used by the researcher to understand the subject matter by allowing the interviewee to illustrate their experience through  their specific cultural background. 

    • B: Structured Questions: allow the researcher to collect information about and individual’s domain; a basic unit of the informants cultural knowledge. Structured questions allow the interviewer an insight into the ways an informant specifically organises their life

    • C. Contrast Questions: discovering the different meanings that an informant associates with a particular concept

    • (59 & 60)

Elements of a friendly conversation :

  • 1: Greetings: Greetings like ‘Hi’ and ‘It’s good to see you’ are verbal cues of closeness that are reinforced by physical cues of closeness such as; prolonged handshakes, hugs and kisses

  • 2: Lack of explicit purpose: friendly conversations don't have an explicit purpose or at least a continuous explicit purpose, they are more organic and radom than interviews

  • 3: Avoiding repetition is good: close friends will usually try an avoid repeating themselves or repeating the same stories in order to maintain the flow of the conversation

  • 4: Asking questions: provokes more conversation

  • 5: Expressing interest: both physically and verbally facilitates more discussion

  • 6: Expressing ignorance: facilitates more discussion

  • 7: Taking turns: there is an even given and take of listening and speaking shared between the two friends

  • 8: Abbreviations: friendly conversations are loaded with a mutual shorthand that hint at a common knowledge that doesn’t need to be explained

  • 9: Pausing: paues carry different meanings and have different functions, pauses may imply deeper consideration of the discussion point, a wish to change the topic or to end the topic of discussion

  • 10: Leave taking: friendly conversations always involve the verbalising the end of the discussion, unless, frends take up a new activity such as taking the bus together or one person reading a book that segways into another part of the day.

The ethnographic interview similar in some ways to a friendly conversation but with some key differences including;

Key distinctions between and ethnographic interview and a friendly conversation:

(67 & 68)

  • 1: Turn taking is less balanced: the nature of turn taking in the ethnographic interview is asymmetrical, with the interviewer posing all the questions and the subject matter focused solely on the experience of the informat.

  • 2: Repeating replaces the normal rule of avoiding repetition: the interviewer is constantly using repetition as a means to clarify the purpose of the interview, to provoke deeper conversation and to understand the topic in the language of the informant by restating their words back to them

  • 3: Expressing ignorance and interest occur more often but on the part of the interviewee: expressing ignorance and interest is a way to provoke more detailed conversation, by expressing ignorance the interviewer allows the informant to fill in the knowledge gaps, while the expression of interest encourages the informant with confidence to provoke more discussion

  • 4: In the place of abbreviating a mutual understanding, the ethnographer askes the infomat to expand upon specific terms they use: the ethnographer encourages interviewees to unpack and expound upon specific elements of cultural knowledge latent in abbreviated language

    IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is an essential text because it informs the structure and approach that I have taken both in the creation of the interview questions and they way in which the interview is conducted. 



The Historical Record

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Belfiore, E & Bennett, O. (2006). Rethinking the Social Impact of the Arts: a critical- historical review

TAGS: Historical Record

CENTRAL THEME: There is substantial evidence for the value of the arts from a purely historical, intellectual and physiological perspective. Building and argument for the value of arts can be achieved by working exclusively within the field of the humanities 

AUDIENCE: Academics reading in the humanities  

Method / Research Design: Literature Review 

Key findings include;

    • Catharsis: Aristotle’s Poetics (73)

    • Cognitive and aesthetic benefits: Kant (86)

    • Relief from the ‘Will’  Schopenhaur: (87)

    • Pleasure and wellbeing in work and leisure: William Morris: (89)

    • Fulfilled Time :Hans-Georg Gadamer: (89) 

    • Art as Experience: John Dewy and (90)

    • Art as Play :Huizinga: (91)

    • Flow Experience: Csikezentimihali: (94)

    • Historical Record: Art Therapy:  The Ancient Egyptian Book of The Dead  (94 & 95).

    • Art in education and self development (103)

    • The place of culture as a civilising force for moral improvement (115)

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: Presents a good reference point for contextualising the value of the arts from a historical perspective. Provides a backdrop in which case study data can be contextualised within   



Participatory Art

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Bonet, L. and Négrier, E. (Eds.) (2018a). Breaking the Fourth Wall. Proactive Audiences in the Performing Arts. Elverum: Kunnskapsverket. 

TAGS: Participatory Arts: Social Impact  

CENTRAL THEME: Participating in the creative process is a democratic action as individuals work as a collective to make creative choices. Engagement in this process of creative problem solving is a rehearsal for active citizenship in the wider social world. The role of art and culture is to bring people together in the spirit of inclusivity in order  to build stronger social bonds between individuals so that communities  self - determine their future at the political level.   

AUDIENCE: Artists, Cultural Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: Action research 

Key findings include;

Impacts on participants: (108)

        • learning of new tools of expression, 

        • daring to express oneself,

        • meeting new people and enjoying time together, 

        • becoming familiar with an artistic vocabulary, 

        • feeling the will to create,

        • better understanding of the ‘hidden work’  of artists ‘from the inside’, 

        • different perception of artists and venues and feeling closer to the institution, 

        • becoming a ‘cultural ambassador’

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is a large text that covers a lot of ground from the creative process, research and cultural policy. In a chapter entitled Creative residences: how does participation impact on artists, venues and participants? Dupin-Meynard, conducts and action research to investigate the impacts of the theatre workshop on participants. Moreover  the text provides useful background reading on the role of culture within the democratic process but it is important to stay on topic as this book has had a tendency to take me away from my research question. 

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Matarasso, F. (1997). Use or ornament?: The social impact of participation in the Arts. Stroud, Glos: Comedia.

TAGS: Participatory Arts: Social Impact  

CENTRAL THEME: Participatory art initiatives that engage local communities generate a rage of inherent  and instrumental benefits for individuals and society. 

AUDIENCE: Artists, Cultural Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: Case study; focus groups & interviews 

Key findings include;

Themes:  (8, 9 & 10)

      • personal development

      • social cohesion

      • community empowerment and self determination

      • local image and identity, imagination

      • vision and health and well-being 

50 social impacts: (11)

      • from 1: increase in people’s confidence and sense of self worth to 50: providing a unique and deep source of enjoyment 

  • music and community theatre provided a way in which people living in Belfast and Derry could meet others from different traditions and collaborate on projects which directly addressed their social situations (39) 

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is an extremely useful text because it provides a detailed discussion on the social benefits of arts participation, evidencing its claims with case study examples from the UK and around the world.This literature reveals the relative nature of cultural value and how each community arts project is responding  to its own unique circumstances. There for researchers investigating the social impact of a given arts project must tailor their methodology for the unique circumstances of the case study.




AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Bonet L, Calvano C, Carnelli L, Dupin-Meynard F & Négrier E, (2014), BeSpectACTive! Challenging Participation in Performing Arts, Editoria & Spettacolo, Italy

TAGS: Participatory Arts: Social Impact  

CENTRAL THEME: Participating in the creative process is a democratic action as individuals work as a collective to make creative choices. Engagement in this process of creative problem solving is a rehearsal for active citizenship in the wider social world. The role of art and culture is to bring people together in the spirit of inclusivity in order  to build stronger social bonds between individuals so that communities  self - determine their future at the political level.  

AUDIENCE: Artists, Cultural Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: Action research:

Key findings include; glossary of terms:

Active citizenship: 386: Participation in civil society, community and/or political life, characterised by mutual respect and non-violence and in accordance with human rights and democracy (Hoskins et al., 2006). It is also a form of literacy, because it implies being aware of what is happening around us, acquiring knowledge and understanding so as to make informed judgements, and having the skill and courage to respond in the appropriate way, individually or collectively. Active citizenship embodies the conviction that every individual can make a difference to the community he or she lives in – whether that means the local, national or global community (European Economic and Social Committee, 2012). A joint practice of self-determination (Habermas, 1994). 

Active spectatorship: 387 :Active spectatorship refers to each mechanism through which audiences, namely spectators or citizens, take on the role of decision makers with regard to many of the aspects needed to carry out a festival or a theatre or dance programme (Be SpectACTive!, 2014). 

Co-creation: 395 : Activity where audience members contribute to an artistic expe- rience curated by a professional artist (Brown and Ratzkin, 2011). Arts and cultural products are also often imbued with co-creation activities (i.e. by both the producer and the consumer). Co-creation has been defined as the processes by which both consumers and producers collaborate, or otherwise participate, in creating value (Pongsakornrungsilp and Schroeder, 2011). In a view of marketing specialists, artistic and cultural value co- creation activities are subsequently undertaken by stakeholders such as patrons and funding bodies. These actors recognise the artistic potential and attempt to diffuse it, generally to individuals and organisations labelled as “experts” (critics, theatres, museums, etc.). The final stage of the co-creation relates to the interaction of the consumer with the art and culture production. This transition from one actor to another implies progressive enhancement in its social value and subsequently its economic value (Botti, 2000). 

Collective intelligence: 397 :Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. Philosophers (Jenkins, 2006; Levy, 1999) support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratisation, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture, sustained by collective idea sharing, and, thus, contributes to a better understanding of diverse society. 

Cultural democracy: 398 :Cultural democracy can be seen as presenting as valid the public’s chosen forms of cultural expression and engagement, rather than promoting a prescribed definition of what is included in “the arts”. The Pillars of Cultural Democracy (Kelly, 1985) can be described as follows: 

A genuine cultural pluralism. People should have rights of access both to cultural outputs, and the means of cultural input; Does not oppose the high arts; Not concerned with producing the “right art”; Wants to produce conditions within which communities can have their own creative voices recognised and given sufficient space to develop. 

Democratisation of culture: 398: Democratisation of culture is underpinned by a long-standing belief in the value of the civilising aspects of art and culture and thereby a concomitant desire to democratise access to it. Democratisation of culture refers to processes where the “official” culture, typically represented by large and well-funded institutions, is made accessible to non-participating communities, often in the belief that it will do them good. It is a plan of action based on the belief that cultural development proceeds from the improved distribution of the experiences and products of high culture (Adams and Goldbart, 1988). 

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: Presents a useful glossary of terms and participant testimony of the creative residency, but it is not necessary to veer away from these sections of the book.



participatory art: Case Study

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Thomas. C. (2017), Dublin 8 Dialogues, Dublin Inquirer, https://www.dublininquirer.com/2017/03/01/dublin-8-dialogues

TAGS: Case Study; participatory arts 

CENTRAL THEME: Through their engagement in participatory arts projects, Outlandish Theatre make work in co - creation with the local community. This is the action of the group’s civic responsibly to its locality. In doing so the group encourage cultural democracy as different classes encounter one another and ‘hard to reach’ and ‘vulnerable’ populations participate in the cultural life of the city.     

AUDIENCE: Artists, Artist Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: Interview 

Key findings include;

  • Civic role of O.T: community of Dublin 8 as the site for the development of artistic works 

  • Social Friction in the community: Dublin is a cultural diverse area however it is also prone to social friction;

  • ‘We’ve worked with those communities and tried to bind different communities together, but they’re still seen as territorial places. This is my territory and this is where I pee. Piss off, it’s not yours” 

  • Class encounter: Community art projects facilitate a space for different classes to encounter one another; 

  • YOUtopia (2015); a theatrical response to the housing crisis (Cooke in Thomas) 

  • Promoting accessibility :The YOUtopia project facilitated greater access to the arts. By working with Simon Community members, O.T  The Abby Theatre a more accessible cultural space;

  • 70% of the 250 Simon Community members that she worked with during the project, had never been to The National Theatre of Ireland before. (Hendricks in Thomas)

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This article plays a crucial role in my research project because it informs the formulation of the interview questions. Outlandish Theatre make work in direct relation to the Dublin 8 community. This article details the social and artistic aspects of that engagement in the discussion of the group’s various theatre projects.       

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Reilly. O & Hendricks. M (2014), Between Land and Water, Create, http://www.create-ireland.ie/evaluations-and-case-studies/between-land-and-water 

TAGS: Case Study; participatory arts 

CENTRAL THEME: Outlandish Theatre’s practice seeks to make connections with the Dublin 8 community and explore the rich multiculturalism of the area.

AUDIENCE: Artists, Artist Managers & Community Leaders

Method / Research Design: Performance diary;  qualitative: a critical reflection  

Key findings include;

  • Sacred in the secular sentiment: 

    Come and Go was “like a prayer, in a world without a God”

  • Challenges of different lifestyles & multiculturalism:  

    approximately ten participants chose not to continue the project due to precarious living circumstances for some, and religious beliefs preventing them taking part in a public performance for others.

  • Challenges mixing non actors into a performance: Challenge of ‘docu -drama’: Creating a rehearsal schedule that matched the chaotic logistics of the participants’ lives and a rehearsal room friendly to participants’ children was challenging. Some of the interview and writing sessions were held in participants’ houses as a result. In addition, organising an outdoor public screening of Between Land and Water proved difficult.

  • Value of participatory art:

    a theatre documentary style performance led by the participants’ - diverse first generation migrants - boundaries in presentation of self on screen and in public.

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This text is somewhat useful but limited in the information that it provides. Some key insights about multiculturalism in Dublin are revealed, but, because, this text is only intended as a board summary it doesn’t go into any depth about these themes. There isn’t any meaningful discussion of artistic impact but this text does provide a general understanding of the group’s creative process.   





AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Rocks. S,  (2019), Womb, a play by Outlandish Theatre Platform at First Fortnight 2019, Arena RTE, https://www.rte.ie/radio/radioplayer/rteradiowebpage.html#!rii=b9_21491448_1526_10-01-2019_

TAGS: Case Study; participatory arts 

CENTRAL THEME: Leading workshops in a theatre space on the campus of a maternity hospital has lead Outlandish Theatre’s to explore themes of female embodiment. Produce in the wake of the 8th amendment for abortion rights, the artists developed a creative response to womanhood in contemporary Ireland 

AUDIENCE: Artists, Artist Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: Interview 

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: Although this interview directly relates to the case study, its not a particularly helpful source. It passingly discusses themes of ‘Womanhood’ in the group’s performance ‘Womb’. However, the interview style gives some hits as  how to structure the methodology. No key findings have been noted because the interview was for promotional purposes.     



Cultural Policy Research

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: McCarthy, K.F., Ondaatje, E.H., Zakaras, L. and Brooks, A., (2005). Reframing the Debate About the Value of the Arts, The Rand Corporation, California 

TAGS: Cultural Policy Research: artistic impact 

CENTRAL THEME: A useful way in which to consider the impact of arts participation and cultural value is to assess its benefits from and inherent - instrumental and public - private perspective. Qualitative and quantitative  methodologies can then be used experimentally within this paradigm to explore the value of creative activity.    

AUDIENCE: Cultural Policy Makers & Arts Researchers 

Method / Research Design: Literature Review 

Key Findings; (1)

  •  discussion of the relationship between inherent and instrumental impacts of arts participation, 

  • emphasising the uses of qualitative and quantitate research methodologies as a means to measure this artistic value

  • Four dimensional framework that describes artistic value 

  • inherent - instrumental and private - public 

  •  Inherent impacts of arts participation is the strictly private and personal value that people attach to a cultural experience such as;  captivation and pleasure

  • Instrumental impacts entail the achievement of border economic and social goals such as the development of social capital and economic growth

  • The researches, however, point out the blurred lines between inherent and instrumental value as artistic impact traverses private and public spaces. For instance, an adult may befit personally from participating in a drama workshop by becoming more socially confident. This new found sense of confidence may encourage  them to set up a community activity in their locality  that encourages social bonding within the community. There for the inherent benefit in a boost of confidence encouraged  the individual to establish a community service that has an instrumental impact on the social network of the locality. 

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is an essential text within my literature review that defines the perimeters of study and locates the expected outcomes within a specific framework. By using this model findings from the research can be assessed by the extent in which they benefit the community in the achievement of broader   socio - economic goals or  the individual participant  in a personal and private way.

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Arts Council England (2010), The Value of Arts and Culture to People and Society: an evidence review, Manchester, COG

TAGS: Cultural Policy Research: artistic impact 

CENTRAL THEME: The benefits of arts participation to society can be seen at an Economic, Health, Social and Educational Level  

AUDIENCE: Cultural Policy Makers & Arts Researchers 

Method / Research Design: Literature Review 

Benefits of arts participation to society; (15)

  •  Economy,

  • Health, 

  • Wellbeing,  

  • Society, 

  • Education,

  • ‘those who attended a cultural place or event in the last twelve months where almost 60% more likely to report good health compared to those who did not, and theatre goers where almost 25% more likely to report good health (20)



Civic role of the cultural institute

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Galouste Gulbenkian Foundation, UK, 2016, Rethinking Relationships, Inquiry into the civic role of arts organisations

TAGS: Civic role of the cultural institute 

CENTRAL THEME: The cultural institute has a civic responsibility to represent the people living it its constituency as an ‘active ingredient’ in the art making process

AUDIENCE: Artist Managers & Community Leaders

Method / Research Design;  literature reviews, interviews, surveys, focus groups, case studies, artist commissions and Delphi analysis

Key findings include;

Metaphors

  • Colleges: places of learning, 

  • Town halls: places of debate, 

  • Parks: public space open to everyone, 

  • Temples: places which give meaning and provide solace 

  • Home: a place of safety and belonging

  • (11)

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This text presents a number of useful metaphors in which to invasion the relationship between the cultural organisation and the people living in the community. These metaphors have been used in the artist and participant interviews in-order to elicit conversation.   

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Brown, A.S.; Novak-Leonard, J.L. & Gilbride, S. (2011). Getting in on the act: How arts groups are creating opportunities for active participation. San Francisco, CA: The James Irvine Foundation. 

TAGS: Civic role of the cultural institute 

CENTRAL THEME: The ‘participatory shift’ in art making from “sit-back-and-be-told culture” to a  process based“making-and-doing-culture.” produces social cohesion and capital amongst the community  civic responsibility

AUDIENCE: Artist Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: case study 

Key findings include;

  • Participatory arts represents a shift from  “sit-back-and-be-told culture” to a “making-and-doing-culture” this is the action of active citizenship  (4)

  • The audience involvement spectrum is a conceptual tool used to represent the level of audience engagement within artistic work (5)

The Audience Involvement Spectrum: Receptive

SPECTATING:  Spectating is fundamentally an act of receiving a finished artistic product. It is therefore outside the realm of participatory arts practice. 

ENHANCED ENGAGEMENT: Educational or “enrichment” programs may activate the creative mind, but for the most part do not involve creative expression on the part of the audience member Participatory:

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Crossick G & Kaszynska P(2010), The Value of Arts and Culture to People and Society: an evidence review, Arts Council England, Manchester 

TAGS: Civic role of the cultural institute 

CENTRAL THEME: The UK is a place where art meets commerce. Investment in the cultural sector promotes the creative life of the nation, increases job opportunities and creates growth. Investment in the arts allows  people in the UK to negotiate, formulate and articulate their identities both to themselves and to others. Yet winning public investment for the arts is a challenging task especially in an ‘age of austerity’ where policy makers have a difficult task of evaluating the best use of public monies. This project advocates the cultural sector as a market worthy of funding by detailing best practice methodologies of assessing cultural value and impact.      

AUDIENCE: Artist Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: Large scale action research incorporating; qualitative, quantitative, mixed research methodologies     

Key findings include;

Cultural value / impact themes: 

    • The reflective individual (42)

    • The engaged citizen: civic agency & civic engagement (58) 

    • Communities, Regeneration and Space (71) 

    • Economy: impact, innovation and ecology (86) 

    • Health: ageing and wellbeing (100)

    • Arts in education (113) 

Civic Engagement: key observations based on US case studies  (70)

    • Engagement in cultural activity is conducive to fostering civic engagement in three ways; 

    • Didactic; art and cultural events explicitly instructing or persuading audiences to advocate for specific political movements

    • Discursive: cultural events facilitate a space for political discourse amongst audience members      

    • Ecological: emphasis on the ‘spill over’ effect of cultural participation from inherent - private to instrumental - public  

    • Proving the correlation between civic engagement and cultural participation is difficult, but this evidence base is growing particularly in the U.S where a correlation between creative engagement , voting and volunteering is growing

    • Evidence shows that cultural participation encourages awareness of climate change in a non didactic way, by translating abstract notions into human terms. Art functions obliquely, cutting through complacency to encourage  individuals to consider alternative social narratives that fuel the political imagination which is essential to democratic society 

    • A growing evidence base shows how cultural participation builds young people’s confidence to become politically active, how public artworks encourage communities to reflect upon their society and how minority voices find a collective voice, identity and recognition 

    • Cultural intervention can aid in the healing of social dramas in conflict zone, facilitating dialogue between fractured communities that wouldn’t be possible at the political level. However it is noted that culture can also play a negative effect in perpetuating antagonisms between social groups.

    • Civic space and civic engagement: three case studies (61)

    • Creative challenge: cultural industries, digging (63)

    • Community-based arts and health (104)

    • Methodologies: evidence, data and varieties of evaluation (120)

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is an essential piece of literature that explores the theme of cultural value from multiple perspectives providing key insight into; the engagement of civic responsibility  through cultural participation, promoting awareness and action towards climate change, community based arts and healing and varieties of evaluating cultural impact. 

The Audience Involvement Spectrum: Participatory

CROWD SOURCING 

Audience becomes activated in choosing or contributing towards an artistic product. 

  • Youth mosaics 

  • Photography contests

  • An opera libretto comprised of Tweets 

  • Virtual choruses 

  CO-CREATION 

Audience members contribute something to an artistic experience curated by a professional artist. 

  • Participatory theatre 

  • Pro/Am concerts 

  • Storytelling events 

  • Participatory public art 

AUDIENCE-AS- ARTIST
Audience members substantially take control of the artistic experience; focus shifts from the product to the process of creation. 

  • Public dances

  • Community drawing contests 

Along this spectrum an audience member’s  involvement in a work can range from; Curatorial, Interpretive and Inventive (5)

The difference between receptive and participatory (6)

  • Attending a concert VS Singing in a choir 

  • Reading a book VS Writing a story about your life 

  • Watching a dance competition  on tv VS Dancing in a competition 

  • Playing a video game VS Making a video

  • Case study: Community - Activated Theatre programs 

Case Study: Continuing the tradition of Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed and the work of Cornerstone Theatre, these initiatives draw upon theatre as a means of community development. By inviting to community members to create, perform and witness these performances, these art programs weave themselves into the fabric of the community (27)

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This text presents a number of useful conceptual models and case studies of participatory arts, but isn’t aligned with the research question of impact , yet, it is possible that the theme of participation may arise within a conversation of artistic value with interviewees.


AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Crossick G & Kaszynska P(2010), The Value of Arts and Culture to People and Society: an evidence review, Arts Council England, Manchester 

TAGS: Civic role of the cultural institute 

CENTRAL THEME: The UK is a place where art meets commerce. Investment in the cultural sector promotes the creative life of the nation, increases job opportunities and creates growth. Investment in the arts allows  people in the UK to negotiate, formulate and articulate their identities both to themselves and to others. Yet winning public investment for the arts is a challenging task especially in an ‘age of austerity’ where policy makers have a difficult task of evaluating the best use of public monies. This project advocates the cultural sector as a market worthy of funding by detailing best practice methodologies of assessing cultural value and impact.      

AUDIENCE: Artist Managers & Community Leaders 

Method / Research Design: Large scale action research incorporating; qualitative, quantitative, mixed research methodologies     

Key findings include;

Cultural value / impact themes: 

    • The reflective individual (42)

    • The engaged citizen: civic agency & civic engagement (58)

    • Communities, Regeneration and Space (71) 

    • Economy: impact, innovation and ecology (86) 

    • Health: ageing and wellbeing (100)

    • Arts in education (113) 

Civic Engagement: key observations based on US case studies  (70)

    • Engagement in cultural activity is conducive to fostering civic engagement in three ways; 

    • Didactic; art and cultural events explicitly instructing or persuading audiences to advocate for specific political movements

    • Discursive: cultural events facilitate a space for political discourse amongst audience members      

    • Ecological: emphasis on the ‘spill over’ effect of cultural participation from inherent - private to instrumental - public  

    • Proving the correlation between civic engagement and cultural participation is difficult, but this evidence base is growing particularly in the U.S where a correlation between creative engagement , voting and volunteering is growing

    • Evidence shows that cultural participation encourages awareness of climate change in a non didactic way, by translating abstract notions into human terms. Art functions obliquely, cutting through complacency to encourage  individuals to consider alternative social narratives that fuel the political imagination which is essential to democratic society 

    • A growing evidence base shows how cultural participation builds young people’s confidence to become politically active, how public artworks encourage communities to reflect upon their society and how minority voices find a collective voice, identity and recognition 

    • Cultural intervention can aid in the healing of social dramas in conflict zone, facilitating dialogue between fractured communities that wouldn’t be possible at the political level. However it is noted that culture can also play a negative effect in perpetuating antagonisms between social groups.

    • Civic space and civic engagement: three case studies (61)

    • Creative challenge: cultural industries, digging (63)

    • Community-based arts and health (104)

    • Methodologies: evidence, data and varieties of evaluation (120)

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is an essential piece of literature that explores the theme of cultural value from multiple perspectives providing key insight into; the engagement of civic responsibility  through cultural participation, promoting awareness and action towards climate change, community based arts and healing and varieties of evaluating cultural impact.     



ARTS & Health

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Go Create!Breath (2015 - 2016) Go Create! Outpatient activities evaluation, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Breath UK

TAGS: Arts & Health, Creativity & Wellbeing   

CENTRAL THEME; Creative interventions in outpatient waiting areas have an impact on the overall ambiance of the space which intern promotes positive behaviours in outpatient children that relaxes parents and staff. As a result the perception  of waiting time is reduced in the mind of the parent and child as they perceive a higher quality service from staff. 

AUDIENCE: Art therapists and medical professionals    

Method / Research Design

Quantitative rating scales contextualised by participant testimony using thematic textual analysis:

    • 1. Feedback forms completed anonymously by parents in the waiting areas 

    • 2. Feedback forms completed anonymously online by staff working in outpatient areas 

    • 3. Anonymous observation of child and parent behaviours in waiting areas using the Arts  Observational Scale for hospital programme evaluations 

Key findings include; (2)

    • On average, 77-83% of children who are in a waiting area when Go Create! activities are taking place actively engage with the activities.

    • The quality of the activities is rated 4.5/5 stars by parents and 4.4/5 by staff.

    • 92% of parents believe the activities improve the family experience of being in hospital.

    • 69% of parents report that the activities distract their child from being in hospital.

    • Parents report that the activities make the waiting areas appear more safe, creative, caring and kind.

    • 13% fewer children display disruptive behaviours in the waiting areas in the presence of activities compared to no activities

    • 94% of staff report that the activities make their job easier, including reducing the number of complaints

    • 90% of staff feel the activities help them to feel relaxed too

    • 95% of staff feel the activities improve their work environment

    • 96% of staff feel the activities should continue to be funded in the outpatient waiting area

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This is a specific study in the area of arts and health that shows the effectiveness of a triangulated methodology in-which to gather data on participant experience. The findings are important testimony for the impact of arts participation, and the research design insightful however this field of study is outside of my research.

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: All-Party Parliamentary Group on Arts, Health and Wellbeing (2017). Creative Health: The Arts for Health and Wellbeing. Retrieved from: http://www.artshealthandwellbeing. org.uk/appg-inquiry/ Publications/Creative_Health_Inquiry_Report_2017.pdf 

TAGS: Arts & Health, Creativity & Wellbeing  

CENTRAL THEME: Creativity and aesthetic design has a positive impact on the mood of outpatients and inpatients recovering in a hospital setting. Drama, Culture, Creativity and Aesthetic play an important role in the creation of wellbeing promoting positive mental, physical, emotional and social health. 

AUDIENCE: Art therapists and medical professionals    

Method / Research Design Literature Review. Within that literature review the text sites a variety of case studies, quantitative, qualitative and action research projects that provide and evidence base for the role of creativity and healing. 

Key findings include;

The current hierarchy of methodological designed needs to be questioned. A methodological shift is required from the ‘gold standard’ of randomised control tests and experiments to research designs that place an emphasis on the subjective texture of experience that quantitative methods tend to overlook in the gathering of statistics . The Cultural Value Project: (34 & 35)

The built and natural environment impacts individual and collective wellbeing. Environments that promote positive aesthetic and sensorial experience are conducive to facilitating this wellbeing and public opinion in the UK agrees  with this statement; 

        • ‘ Poor-quality built environments have a damaging effect upon health and wellbeing.

        • 85%of people in England agree that the quality of the built environment influences the way they feel. 

        • Every £1 spent on maintaining parks has been seen to generate  £34 in community benefits’

        • (9)       

There is significant evidence for the positive impact of creativity, art and cultural activities on the health of patients:

        • ‘Music therapy reduces agitation and need for medication in 67% of people with dementia . 

        • Arts therapies help people to recover from brain injury and diminish the physical and emotional suffering of cancer patients and the side effects of their treatment. 

        • Arts therapies have been found to alleviate anxiety, depression and stress while increasing resilience and wellbeing’

        • (9) 

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This research presents a strong evidence base for the positive impact of art, creativity and cultural activity on individual wellbeing. Advocation of the arts by the medical community is an important ally in developing evidence for the value of arts participation. This is an extremely detailed document covering a lot of ground and it would be easy to go off subject, however, there are sections that refer to the value of community arts and demonstrate methodologies for the assessment of cultural projects.  


AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Schweitzer, M., Gilpin, L. & Frampton, S. Healing Spaces: Elements of Environmental Design That Make an Impact on Health. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 10, S–71 (2004).

TAGS: Arts & Health, Creativity & Wellbeing   

CENTRAL THEME: The overall ambiance of the hospital space can have either positive, negative and neutral effects on the psychology of the patients which in turn affects their wellbeing. Health professionals can work to enliven the hospital atmosphere through the application of appropriate aesthetic and sensorial interventions       

AUDIENCE: Arts & Health, Creativity & Wellbeing   

Method / Research Design: Literature review;

Key findings:

Elements of  aesthetic ambiance:

    • 72: Intention and awareness: relates to the general awareness of how the aesthetics and design of hospital spaces affects patient health. Also relates to the patient personalising their experience by bringing in meaningful objects from home and spending their time creatively with the intervention of an ‘art cart’  

    • 72: Wholeness and energy : acknowledges the spiritual dimension of healing and implications for a multicultural society. Nature is the most universal symbol of spirituality.

    • 72 - 73: Healing relationships: acknowledges the importances of family support, relationships between staff and patients  and animal therapy.  Design and architecture affect all of these relationships

    • 73: Collaborative treatments: acknowledges that the hospital has been designed around the needs of modern medicine and that alternative treatments such as  tai chi, yoga, journaling, drumming and massage are play an important role in patient wellbeing.

Outcome measures; (80)

    • Medication use (especially pain medications) • Length of hospital stay

    • Patient satisfaction

    • Provider satisfaction

    • Well-being, mental status, anxiety, and depression scale score

    • Pain self-rating

    • Sleep questionnaire, sleep scores

    • Hospital-acquired infection rate

    • Stress behaviors

    • Weight and weight gain (especially in newborns)

    • Patient comfort (self-rating)

    • Physiologic indicators such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respirations. 

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: Although this text doesn’t present any empirical evidence for the impact of arts participation, it useful in contextualising the area of arts and heath and the value of creativity within this context. It presents some useful measures for assessing creative interventions on patients, but it’s not a text that would be necessary to refer to because it doesn’t have relevance to participatory arts projects in a community setting.

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Tapson. C, Noble. D, Daykin. N and Walters .D (2018), Music in Care: The impact of music interventions for people living and working in care home settings, University of Winchester, Live Music Now

TAGS: Arts & Health, Creativity (Music) & Wellbeing   

CENTRAL THEME: Musical interventions in care home settings have a positive impact on residents and staff. The evidence base suggests that musical interventions in care home settings should be publicly funded by the UK government and form an necessary social service.    

AUDIENCE: Art therapists and medical professionals    

Method / Research Design

Qualitative case study using the Arts Observational Scale, five reflective interviews and questionnaires conducted on residences and staff using a thematic analysis of participant testimony 

Key findings include;

Summery of recorded impacts; 

          • positive social experiences, 

          • creative engagement, 

          • fun and a sense of achievement 

          • musicians play an important role in nurturing  the wellbeing of elderly people in care

          • (3)

Thematic analysis reveals the following themes; (2 & 3)

    • 1: strategies and approaches involved in the delivery of a music session intervention, 

    • 2: differing responses to the intervention, 

    • 3: empowering the residents and nurturing their identity,

    • 4: the role of staff, musicians and researcher, 

    • 5: effect of intervention 

    • 6: wellbeing and sustainability   

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: This study reveals the positive impact of arts - music - on staff and residence living in a care setting and testimony gathered from this enquiry forms a strong evidence base for the subsidised creative interventions as a social service. Yet this study doesn’t relate directly to my research as it operates in a different field of practice. The methodological design is quite universal for a triangulated approach to data collection and shows the efficacy of reflective interviews as a way of generating information.



Creativity & Education

AUTHOR, TITLE, LOCATION: Shakuntala Banaji, Andrew Burn & David Buckingham, (2006), The rhetorics of creativity: a literature review, Creativity Culture and Education, Newcastle 

TAGS: Rhetorics of Creativity 

CENTRAL THEME: Creativity is a phenomena that takes place in many spheres of activity from the arts and sciences to politics and religion.  According to the researchers, the various dialogues around creativity that takes place within these fields can be synthesised into nine essential ‘discussions’ or ‘rhetorics’        

AUDIENCE: Theatres & Educators 

Method / Research Design: Literature Review 

Key Findings; (69 - 71)

  • 1. Creative genius 

  • This is a post-romantic rhetoric that dismisses modernity and popular culture as vulgar, and argues for creativity as a special quality of a few individuals, either highly educated and disciplined, or inspired in some way, or both. Culture here is defined by a particular discourse about aesthetic judgment and value, manners, civilisation and the attempt to establish literary, artistic and musical canons. It can be traced back through certain aspects of the Romantic period to strands of European Enlightenment thought, in particular, Kant’s Critique of Judgment.

  • 2. Democratic and political creativity 

  • This rhetoric provides an explicitly anti-elitist conceptualisation of creativity as inherent in the everyday cultural and symbolic practices of all human beings. It focuses particularly on the meanings made from and with popular cultural products. In its strongest formulations, it sees the creative work of young people as politically challenging. In one respect, it proceeds from empiricist traditions in which the material experiences of the individual in society lead to creative transformations. In an apparent contradiction, however, it also has roots in radical Romantic thinkers such as Blake, for whom children were agents of a revolutionary imagination, posing a political critique of church and state.

  • 3. Ubiquitous creativity 

  • This entails the notion that creativity is not just about consumption and production of artistic products, whether popular or elite, but involves a skill in having the flexibility to respond to problems and changes in the modern world and one’s personal life. While it is now commonly invoked alongside discussions of creativity as a social process and an ethical choice, the foundation of this rhetoric lies partly in early years education and the notion of providing young children with the tools to function successfully in the world. 

  • 4. Creativity for social good 

  • Seeing individual creativity as linked to social structures, this rhetoric is characterised by its emphasis on the importance for educational policy of the arts as tools for personal empowerment and ultimately for social regeneration. It stresses the integration of communities and individuals who have become ‘socially excluded’ (for example by virtue of race, location or poverty) and invokes educational and economic concerns as the basis for generating policy interest in creativity. This rhetoric emerges largely from contemporary social democratic discourses of inclusion and multiculturalism.

  • 5. Creativity as economic imperative 

  • The future of a competitive national economy is seen to depend, in this rhetoric, on the knowledge, flexibility, personal responsibility and problem solving skills of workers and their managers. These are, apparently, fostered and encouraged by creative methods in business, education and industry. There is a particular focus here on the contribution of the ‘creative industries’. This rhetoric annexes the concept of creativity in the service of a neo-liberal economic programme and discourse. 

  • 6. Play and creativity 

  • A persistent strand in writing about creativity, this rhetoric turns on the notion that childhood play is the origin of adult problem-solving and creative thought. It explores the functions of play in relation to both creative production and cultural consumption. Like aspects of the ‘democratic’ rhetoric, this notion of creativity as play, and its relation to education, emerges from strands of Romantic thought, in this case originating with Rousseau. There are important parallels between contemporary arguments for the role of creativity and the role of play in education. 

  • 7. Creativity and cognition 

  • Ranging from theories of multiple intelligences and the testing of mental creativity levels, through explorations of the potential of artificial intelligence to demonstrate creative thought and production, to cultural psychology, this rhetoric frames creativity in psychological and scientific terms. Its emphasis at one extreme is on the internal production of creativity by the mind, and at the other extreme on external contexts and cultures. Its trajectory in education derives on the one hand from the Piagetian tradition the more culturally situated notions of creative learning expounded by Vygotsky, Dewey and Bruner. 

  • 8. The Creative affordances of technology 

  • If creativity is not inherent in human mental powers and is, in fact, social and situational, then technological developments may well be linked to advances in the creativity of individual users. This rhetoric covers a range of positions, from those who applaud all technology as inherently improving, to those who welcome it cautiously and see creativity as residing in an, as yet, undertheorized relationship between contexts, users and applications. 

  • 9. The creative classroom 

  • Placing itself squarely at the heart of educational practice, this rhetoric focuses on connections between spirituality, knowledge, skills, creativity, teaching and learning and the place of creativity in an increasingly regulated and monitored curriculum. The focal point of this rhetoric is frequently practical advice to educators. This rhetoric locates itself in pragmatic accounts of ‘the craft of the classroom’, rather than in academic theories of mind or culture.

IMPORTANCE for your STUDY: Although this text is located in the unrelated field of Education and Creativity, it provides an interesting background into the scope of the subject matter. The rhetorics of ,  Democratic and political Creativity and Creativity for social good, describe the values of Outlandish Theatre and a further investigation of these two rhetorics would provide useful background reading.  ng from theories of multiple intelligences and the testing of mental creativity levels, through explorations of the potential of artificial intelligence to demonstrate creative thought and production, to cultural psychology, this rhetoric frames creativity in psychological and scientific terms. Its emphasis at one extreme is on the internal production of creativity by the mind, and at the other extreme on external contexts and cultures. Its trajectory in education derives on the one hand from the Piagetian tradition the more culturally situated notions of creative learning expounded by Vygotsky, Dewey and Bruner.